Slide Humboldt-­
zu Berlin
E53 place
19–20, 2017
E52 Time-Span
Conference E55 Type 3D Digital Heritage Exploring Virtual Research Space for Art History


Day 1

June 19th, 2017

Hum­boldt-Uni­ver­sität zu Berlin ­Hum­boldt Gra­duate School
Lui­senstr 56, 10117 Berlin


Michaela Marek
Mana­ging Director of the Insti­tute for Art and Visual History ­Hum­boldt-Uni­ver­sität zu Berlin

Peter Has­linger
Director of the Herder Insti­tute for His­to­rical ­Rese­arch on East Cen­tral Europe

Kilian Heck
Chairman of the Asso­cia­tion of Ger­manArt Historians

17:15Key­notes and discussion

Erik Cham­pion
Curtin, Australia

A Scho­l­arly Eco­system for3D Digital Heri­tage Simulations

Fré­déric Kaplan
Lau­sanne, Switzerland

A 4D World: The Time Machine Flagship


Day 2

June 20th, 2017

Hum­boldt-Uni­ver­sität zu Berlin
Hum­boldt Gra­duate School
Lui­senstr 56, 10117 Berlin


Georg Schel­bert
Hum­boldt-Uni­ver­sität zu Berlin

Peter Has­linger
Director of the Herder Insti­tute for His­to­rical ­Rese­arch on East Cen­tral Europe

Pro­ject on East Prus­sian Manor Houses: Prac­tice and Methods

Mode­ra­tion: Erik Cham­pion

9:15 Piotr Kuro­c­zynski, Dietmar Popp

Vir­tual Rese­arch Environments:The New Rese­arch Space for Art History

9:45Oliver Hauck, Martin Scholz

Metho­do­logy, Data Model and ­Imple­men­ta­tion in the Vir­tual Rese­arch Environment

10:15Carsten Neu­mann, Torsten Veit

»Königs­schlösser« in the Light of Digital Art History

11:15Mieke Pfarr-Harfst, Krzy­sztof Koszewski

Dohna-Schlo­dien: A Vir­tual Exhi­bi­tion: Digital Recon­struc­tion of the Manor House and Garden

11:45Jan Lut­teroth, Arthur Sar­nitz

Fried­rich­stein: New Approa­ches in the Digital Recon­struc­tion of the Manor House

12:15Daniel Dworak, Maria Pietruszka

Vir­tual Museum: Inter­ac­tive Web-Based Visua­li­sa­tion of Des­troyed ­Cul­tural Heritage


Räum­lich model­lieren – Per­spek­tiven für die Kunst- und Bildgeschichte

Mode­ra­tion: Georg Schel­bert

14:00Inge Hin­ter­waldner
Hum­boldt-Uni­ver­sität zu Berlin

Zwi­schen Aspek­ti­vität, Affor­danz und big data. Über­le­gungen zur Modellthematik.

14:25Ste­phan Hoppe
Ludwig-Maxi­mi­lians-Uni­ver­sität München

Wie können wir die neuen 3D-Daten ­nutzen? Kunst­his­to­ri­sche Poten­ziale des digi­talen Zugriffs auf die Raumdimen­sion am Bei­spiel des Corpus der baro­cken ­Decken­ma­lerei in Deutschland.

14:50Kai Kappel
Hum­boldt-Uni­ver­sität zu Berlin

Achim Hubel
Otto-Fried­rich-Uni­ver­sität Bamberg

Zwi­schen Wis­sens­spei­cher und ­Visua­li­sie­rungs­in­stru­ment – Fragen zur ­digi­talen Rekon­struk­tion aus der ­A­r­chi­tektur- und Kunstgeschichte

15:45Bernd Fröh­lich
Bau­haus-Uni­ver­sität Weimar

Gemein­same Explo­ra­tion digi­taler ­Rekon­struk­tionen aus der Kunst- und ­Kul­tur­ge­schichte in kol­la­bo­ra­tiver vir­tu­eller Realität

16:10Ina Blümel
Tech­ni­sche ­Infor­ma­ti­ons­bi­blio­thek Hannover

3D For­schungs­daten

mit Piotr Kuro­c­zynski­Georg Schel­bert und
den Vor­tra­genden des Nachmittags
17:30Ende der Veranstaltung


Pro­fessor Erik Cham­pion is UNESCO Chair of Cul­tu­ral­Vi­sua­li­sa­tion and Heri­tage at Curtin Uni­ver­sity and Visua­li­sa­tion theme leader at the Curtin Insti­tute of Com­pu­ta­tion (http://​com​pu​ta​tion​.curtin​.edu​.au). He rese­ar­ches issues in the area of vir­tual heri­tage as well as game design, inter­ac­ti­ve­media, and archi­tec­tural com­pu­ting. Before joi­ning Curtin Uni­ver­sity he was Pro­ject leader of DIGHUMLAB in Den­mark, a con­sor­tium of four Danish uni­ver­si­ties, hosted at Aarhus Uni­ver­sity. His publi­ca­tions include Cri­tical Gaming: Inter­ac­tive Histor­yand Vir­tual Heri­tage (Rout­ledge, 2015), Playing with the Past (Springer, 2011), and Game Mods: ­Design, Theory and Cri­ti­cism (ETC Press, 2012), which he edited. His next book pro­ject (in press) is Cul­tural Heri­tage Infra­st­ruc­tures in Digi­tal­Hu­ma­nities, (Rout­ledge, 2017), with co-edi­tors Agiati Ben­ardou, Costis Dallas and Lorna Hughes.

Erik Cham­pion

A Scho­l­arly Eco­system for 3D Digital Heri­tage Simulations

Major impe­di­ments to the deve­lo­p­ment of high-qua­lity and effec­tive vir­tual heri­tage pro­jects include tech­no­lo­gical cons­traints and insuf­fi­cient audi­ence eva­lua­tion methods. That said, this talk pro­poses that a more fun­da­mental issue has been with the­design, cir­cu­la­tion and use of the digital models them­selves as com­pon­ents of scho­l­arly argu­ments or as vehi­cles to com­mu­ni­cate hypo­theses to the wider public. ● In Aus­tralia, we have pro­posed to UNESCO that we run a pro­ject to survey, col­late and­de­velop tools for heri­tage sites and related built envi­ron­ments, focu­sing initi­ally on Aus­tralia. The aim is to con­so­li­date and dis­se­mi­nate 3D models and vir­tual envi­ron­ments of world heri­tage sites, host vir­tual heri­tage examples, tuto­rials, tool­sand tech­no­lo­gies so heri­tage groups and class­rooms could learn to ­develop and main­tain 3D models and vir­tual envi­ron­ments, and act as advisor on policy for­mu­la­tion for the use, eva­lua­tion and app­li­ca­tion of these 3D digital envi­ron­ments and digi­tal­mo­dels for use in the class­room and for general visua­li­sa­tion pro­jects. ● The ­resul­ting UNESCO Chair pro­ject will imple­ment and advise on 3D models of World Heri­tage Sites, how 3D models can be employed in tea­ching and rese­arch, inves­ti­gate ways tohost both the digital models and related para­data and publi­ca­tions, and transfer for­mats (for desktop use, mobile com­pu­ting etc.), ide­ally with UNESCO, and we will leverage rese­arch faci­li­ties at Curtin and at partner insti­tutes and rese­arch­fa­ci­li­ties. ● The pri­mary goal is to help edu­cate the public in the area of world heri­tage sites via inter­ac­tive col­la­bo­ra­tive digital media, with an emphasis on free and open source soft­ware, and a secon­dary goal is to examine vir­tual heri­tage and­re­lated digital simu­la­tions as com­pon­ents of scho­l­arly argu­ments. The UNESCO Chair’s pro­ject team will also cri­tique, inte­grate and extend exis­ting and new infra­st­ruc­ture to sup­port this lear­ning mate­rial and the overall inte­gra­tion of scho­l­ar­ly­publi­ca­tions, publicly avail­able media and online direc­to­ries and repo­si­to­ries of digital 3D simu­la­tions of world heri­tage sites and related arte­facts as a scho­l­arly ecosystem.

Pro­fessor Fré­déric Kaplan holds the Digital Huma­nitie­sChair at École Poly­tech­nique Fédé­rale de Lau­sanne (EPFL) and directs the EPFL Digital Huma­nities Labo­ra­tory (DHLAB). He con­ducts rese­arch pro­jects com­bi­ning archive digi­ti­sa­tion, infor­ma­tion model­ling and museo­gra­phic design. He is cur­r­ent­ly­di­rec­ting the “Venice Time Machine”, an inter­na­tional pro­ject in col­la­bo­ra­tion with the Ca’Foscari Uni­ver­sity in Venice and the Venice State ­Archives, aiming to model the evo­lu­tion and history of Venice over a 1000-year period. He is also­con­duc­ting pro­jects with the Biblio­t­hèque Natio­nale de France, the Biblio­t­hèque Natio­nale ­Suisse, the Bodmer Foun­da­tion and the Musée de l’Elysée, and has par­ti­ci­pated in exhi­bi­tions at several museums inclu­ding the Centre Pom­pidou in Paris andthe Museum of Modern Art in New York. He was local co-orga­niser of the Digital Huma­nities 2014 con­fe­rence in Lau­sanne. He created the first Digital Huma­nities master’s course in Switz­er­land and is playing an active role in shaping a com­plete new­cur­ri­culum at EPFL.

Fré­déric Kaplan

A 4D World: The Time Machine Flagship

Would it be pos­sible to travel through time as easily as we travel in space? Could you see how your street looked 500 years ago? Could we browse the social net­works of the middle ages? ● The Time Machine FET Flagship aims at buil­ding a Large Sca­le­His­to­rical Simu­lator map­ping 2000 years of Euro­pean History. The objec­tive is to trans­form kilo­me­tres of archives and large collec­tions from museums into a digital infor­ma­tion system. These big data­sets of the past are common resources for the futur­ethat will have a huge cul­tural, eco­nomic and societal impact. A con­sor­tium of 80 Euro­pean insti­tu­tions, coming from 20 coun­tries and sup­ported by 14 inter­na­tional pro­grammes, is cur­r­ently struc­tu­ring this ambi­tious Euro­pean cul­tural project( By set­ting up a unique archi­ving and cal­cu­la­tion ­infra­st­ruc­ture, the Time Machine pro­ject involves equip­ping ­Europe with the tech­no­logy to struc­ture, ana­lyse and model data from the past, and rea­lign it with the­pre­sent to allow us to take a glimpse into the future. ● Time Machine aims to develop new tech­no­lo­gies to sup­port a scan­ning infra­st­ruc­ture able to digi­tise mas­sive amounts of fra­gile docu­ments from the Euro­pean heri­tage. This would be the basis ofthe lar­gest data­base ever created for Euro­pean archival docu­ments. High per­for­mance com­pu­ting clus­ters are used to pro­cess this mass of docu­ments using incre­a­singly accu­rate machine vision algo­rithms, seg­men­ting, indexing and tran­scribing theircon­tent, ulti­mately making them searchable like any other docu­ments we search on the web. The infor­ma­tion net­works extracted from the docu­ments con­sti­tute a mas­sive semantic graph of linked data unfol­ding in space and time as part of an his­to­ri­cal­geo­gra­phical infor­ma­tion system. ● More than a mass of docu­ments and a collec­tion of models, the past will also become a new ter­ri­tory to build and inhabit. Simu­la­tion tech­no­lo­gies and vir­tual rea­lity will enable com­plete immer­sion in vanis­hed­places. The pro­gress of arti­fi­cial intel­li­gence will make it pos­sible to infer, based on his­to­rical data, the struc­ture of undo­cu­mented places, the tra­jec­to­ries of actors, and the tex­tures of these immer­sive simu­la­tions. The “ter­ri­to­ries of the past”will become places of intense social and eco­nomic acti­vity. Tomorrow, we will all be time travellers.

Slide Pro­ject on East Prus­sian Manor Houses:
Prac­tice and Methods

Piotr Kuro­c­zynski is an archi­tect spe­cia­li­sing in the field of digital 3D recon­struc­tion, docu­men­ta­tion and dis­se­mi­na­tion of cul­tural heri­tage. Since 2005, he has been rese­ar­ching and tea­ching at the unit “Infor­ma­tion andCom­mu­ni­ca­tion Tech­no­logy in Archi­tec­ture” of Pro­fessor Man­fred Koob at the Tech­ni­sche Uni­ver­sität Darm­stadt (PhD in 2010). Since 2010 he has also been a lec­turer at the Warsaw Uni­ver­sity of Tech­no­logy. Since 2013 he has been a sci­en­tific member ofstaff and pro­ject coor­di­nator at the Herder Insti­tute for His­to­rical Rese­arch on East Cen­tral Europe. He is co-founder and con­venor of the Digital Recon­struc­tion Working Group of the Digital Huma­nities in German-spea­king Region (DHd) Association.His inte­rests include VREs, semantic data model­ling, CAD/​BIM, 3D model­ling, docu­men­ta­tion and visua­li­sa­tion stan­dards for digital 3D recon­struc­tion of cul­tural heri­tage. Since 2017 he has been Pro­fessor for Com­puter Sci­ence and Visua­li­sa­tion inAr­chi­tec­ture at Mainz Uni­ver­sity of App­lied Sciences.

Dietmar Popp is an art his­to­rian and from 2000, head of the Sci­en­tific Collec­tions, Pho­to­gra­phical Archive, and Art History of East Cen­tral Europe depart­ments at the Herder Insti­tute, and Member of the Leibniz Asso­cia­tion. Hestu­died art history, archaeo­logy and monu­ment con­ser­va­tion in Bam­berg and Karls­ruhe. In 1994 he com­pleted his PhD at the Tech­ni­sche Uni­ver­sität Berlin on “Duccio and Anti­quity: Stu­dies on the Image and Recep­tion of Anti­quity in Pain­ting from Sienaat the Begin­ning of the 14th Cen­tury”. Since 2000 he has mainly focused on co-edi­ting the pro­ject “Dehio-­Hand­buch der Kunst­denk­mäler in Polen”. He also deals with the history of the Herder Institute’s collec­tions, their tra­di­tion and the­do­cu­men­ta­tion of the cul­tural heri­tage of East Cen­tral Europe. Since 2006 he has been head of the Böckler Mare Bal­ticum Foun­da­tion. The (digital) recon­struc­tion of buil­dings, collec­tions and museums in Poland and the Baltic States is one of his keyinterests.

Piotr Kuro­c­zynski, Dietmar Popp

Vir­tual Rese­arch Envi­ron­ments: The New Rese­arch Space for Art History

The amount of sourced-based digital 3D recon­struc­tions and com­puter-based visua­li­sa­tions of cul­tural heri­tage have been incre­a­sing for almost three decades. Vir­tual recon­struc­tion and 3D visua­li­sa­tion have opened up a new “glit­te­ring” rese­arch spacefor object-­ori­ented disci­plines such as archaeo­logy, art history and archi­tec­ture. Nevertheless those aca­de­mics con­cerned with this emer­ging tech­no­logy soon rea­lized docu­men­ta­tion stan­dards were mis­sing from many 3D pro­jects, lea­ding to the loss ofim­portant infor­ma­tion or aggre­gated fin­dings, along with the lost oppor­tu­nity to con­so­li­date the source know­ledge and para­data that led to the crea­tion of the digital 3D repre­sen­ta­tion. ● Gui­de­lines on com­puter-based ­visua­li­sa­tion and 3Ddocumentation (e.g. meta­data) have been intro­duced in the last decade. The recent aca­demic com­mit­ment to the design and app­li­ca­tion of Vir­tual Rese­arch Envi­ron­ments (VRE) for 3D rese­arch pro­jects is pro­mi­sing. These VREs are under con­struc­tion: theyre­quire fur­ther rese­arch and the estab­lish­ment of a sus­tainable digital rese­arch infra­st­ruc­ture. ● The three-year pro­ject “Vir­tual recon­struc­tions in trans­na­tional rese­arch envi­ron­ments – the Web portal ’Palaces and Parks in former East Prussia’”addresses key issues such as the lack of docu­men­ta­tion stan­dards, sus­taina­bi­lity and acces­si­bi­lity of digital rese­arch data and the web-based sci­en­tific visua­li­sa­tion of the 3D con­tent. The focus is on intro­du­cing sus­tainable digital 3Dreconstruction, which is approved by scho­lars, com­p­laint with reco­gnised docu­men­ta­tion stan­dards, and fol­lows Linked Data requi­re­ments. ● The pre­sen­ta­tion intro­duces the metho­do­lo­gical fun­da­men­tals, poten­tial and chal­lenges of digital 3Dreconstruction, arguing that a sci­en­tific metho­do­logy and col­la­bo­ra­tive web-based rese­arch envi­ron­ment are cru­cial fea­tures for this kind of pro­ject. The ground­work for a human- and machine-read­able “lan­guage of objects” and the imple­men­ta­tion ofthese semantic pat­terns for spa­tial rese­arch pur­poses on des­troyed and/​or unrea­lised cul­tural heri­tage will also be dis­cussed. Illus­trated by prac­tical examples and expe­ri­ence derived from the above rese­arch pro­ject, the pre­sen­ta­tion exp­lains the­re­qui­re­ments of the Semantic Web (Linked Data), the role of con­trolled voca­bu­la­ries, the archi­tec­ture of the VRE and the impact of a cus­to­mised inte­gra­tion of inter­ac­tive 3D models within WebGL tech­no­logy. The aim is to show­case the state of the artat this stage in the deve­lo­p­ment of a digital rese­arch infrastructure.

Oliver Hauck is an archi­tect spe­cia­lised in 3D recon­struc­tionsand digi­ti­sing spa­tial envi­ron­ments based in Frank­furt am Main. He stu­died archi­tec­ture and urban design at the Tech­ni­sche Uni­ver­sität Darm­stadt. From 1999–2006 he worked on the DFG funded rese­arch pro­ject “Die Hagia Sophia Jus­ti­nians als­Schau­platz geist­li­cher und welt­li­cher Macht” at the TU Darmstadt’s chair of clas­sical archaeo­logy (Prof. Knell, Prof. Sti­chel). He worked at TU Darmstadt’s faculty of archi­tec­ture with Pro­fessor Man­fred Koob, lea­ding the 3D recon­struc­tion project“The Temples of Angkor” (2004−2010) fol­lowed by lec­tureship until 2013, from 2008–2013 also at Mainz Uni­ver­sity of App­lied Sci­ences. In 2009 he started his PhD at TU Darmstadt’s chair of clas­sical archaeo­logy (Prof. Lang): “Zur Methodik der­drei­di­men­sio­nalen com­pu­ter­ge­stützten Rekon­struk­tion von Gebäuden am Bai­spiel der Hagia Sophia Jus­ti­nians in Istanbul”. In 2010 he founded the Insti­tute of Space Repre­sen­ta­tion in Frank­furt am Main. Since 2012 he has been a member of the board ofar­chi­tects of the Federal State of Hesse..

Martin Scholz is one of the principal deve­lo­pers of the WissKI­virtual rese­arch envi­ron­ment. He stu­died Com­puter Sci­ence and Chi­nese Stu­dies in Erlangen. After his diploma in 2008, he became a rese­arch assi­stant at the Digital Huma­nities rese­arch group of the Uni­ver­sity of Erlangen-Nürn­berg and star­ted­wor­king for the DFG-funded pro­ject “Wis­sen­schaft­liche Kom­mu­ni­ka­tions-Infra­struktur” (WissKI). Since 2017 he has been involved in the digi­ti­sa­tion of the uni­ver­sity collec­tions in Erlangen as part of the BMBF-funded pro­ject “Objekte im Netz”. His­re­se­arch inte­rests are in digital huma­nities, espe­cially know­ledge manage­ment, the Semantic Web, and natural lan­guage processing.

Oliver Hauck, Martin Scholz

Metho­do­logy, Data Models and ‑Imple­men­ta­tion in the ViReBa Vir­tual Rese­arch Environment

This talk takes a look behind the scenes of the Vir­tual Rese­arch Envi­ron­ment (VRE) patri​mo​nium​.net, which deals with the vir­tual 3D recon­struc­tion of des­troyed ancient baroque manor houses, buil­dings and gar­dens. It served as the working plat­form forthe pro­ject “Digital 3D Recon­struc­tion in Vir­tual Rese­arch Envi­ron­ments” that ran from 2013–2016. ● A cen­tral rese­arch aspect was the deve­lo­p­ment and app­li­ca­tion of docu­men­ta­tion tech­ni­ques for 3D models and the impact of this docu­men­ta­tion on the 3Dmodelling pro­cess. Semantic model­ling is not new to the field of archi­tec­ture: Buil­ding Infor­ma­tion Model­ling (BIM) is a plan­ning method com­monly used by archi­tects. The talk will show how BIM has been app­lied using common 3D model­ling soft­ware in 3Dreconstruction, which is the basic recom­men­da­tion for using the models in the VRE, and in a vir­tual museum, with parts of the 3D model repre­sen­ting all the infor­ma­tion behind them in the data­base. ● The recon­struc­tion model is enri­ched by meta­da­ta­de­scribing its com­plex crea­tion history, with a focus on sources used for its crea­tion, such as visual and audio sources or mea­su­re­ments, with the aim of making every decision taken by the recon­struc­ting staff trans­pa­rent and revi­s­able. This­in­for­ma­tion is com­bined and repre­sented as a fle­xible know­ledge graph. ● At its core, the data model con­sists of an align­ment of the Cul­tural Heri­tage Markup Lan­guage with the CIDOC CRM in the form of an OWL domain onto­logy, taking advan­tage ofLinked Open Data and the Semantic Web. ● Hand­ling the com­ple­xity of the CIDOC CRM and the domain onto­logy on the one hand, and the graph like data model on the other, however, is not an easy task for rese­ar­chers that are not espe­cially trained. Thus, makes use of the WissKI system (Wis­sen­schaft­liche Kom­mu­ni­ka­tions-Infra­struktur), which mediates bet­ween the data model’s pecu­lia­ri­ties and the rese­ar­chers’ digital abi­li­ties. By defi­ning onto­logy paths, com­plex infor­ma­tion in the­know­ledge graph can be trans­lated to well-known tabular meta­data visua­li­sa­tions. The data graph is fur­ther enri­ched by auto­matic anno­ta­tion extrac­tion from free text. Finally, patri​mo​nium​.net fea­tures a 3D model anno­ta­tion tool, where the anno­ta­ti­on­data is stored as triples according to the ontology.

Carsten Neu­mann is an art his­to­rian. From 1991 to 1997 hestu­died art history and history at the Uni­ver­sity of Greifs­wald, finis­hing with a master’s thesis enti­tled “Das Schaffen des Archi­tekten Johann Fried­rich Kün­necke in Meck­len­burg” (“The Works of the Archi­tect Johann Fried­rich Kün­necke inMeck­len­burg”). He then stu­died for his doc­to­rate at the Uni­ver­sity of Greifs­wald from 1998 to 2001. From 2002 to 2007 he worked on a range of pro­jects in various roles for the Prus­sian Palaces and Gar­dens Foun­da­tion Berlin-Bran­den­burg. He com­ple­tedhis PhD thesis on “Die Kunst am Hofe Herzog Ulrichs zu Meck­len­burg” (“The arts at the court of Duke Ulrich of Meck­len­burg”) in 2006. Since January 2014 Carsten Neu­mann has been a rese­arch asso­ciate in the pro­ject pre­sented here, respon­sible for­in­ves­ti­ga­ting the art and archi­tec­tural history of the manor houses.

Torsten Veit is an art his­to­rian, ston­e­mason and stone carver.After his appren­ti­ce­ships in Ger­many and Italy he started stu­dying art history and eco­no­mics at the Uni­ver­sity of Greifs­wald. He achieved his BA in Art History in 2012, and his MA in 2015, with his thesis “Ober­fläch­lich betrachtet –stu­dies onsur­face tre­at­ment and effect in baroque sculp­ture at Bernini and Schlüter”. He has been a gra­duate assi­stant in the pro­ject pre­sented here since 2014. Cur­r­ently, he is working on his PhD as a rese­arch assi­stant in the Inter­na­tional Rese­arch­Trai­ning Group (IRTG) “Baltic Bor­der­lands” at the Uni­ver­sity of Greifs­wald. He is rese­ar­ching the mobi­lity of craft­smen in Europe during the 18th cen­tury from Upper Bavaria to the Baltic Sea Region. His doc­toral rese­arch seeks to com­bine digi­ta­land clas­sical art his­to­rical methods and to prove the value of gra­phical net­work visua­li­sa­tions for art history.

Carsten Neu­mann, Torsten Veit

Königs­schlösser” in the Light of Digital Art Histor

The East Prus­sian manor houses and estates and their owners shaped the region in many ways. On the one hand, they were clo­sely linked to the royal court as “royal palaces”; on the other, they were not only an archi­tec­tural expres­sion of the rise oft­heir buil­ders, but also an admi­nis­tra­tive and repre­sen­ta­tive centre of exten­sive pro­perty com­plexes. ● An essen­tial basis for our work was the figu­ra­tive, tex­tual and mate­rial tra­di­tions from the ­archives and collec­tions of the Dohna and Dön­hoff­fa­mi­lies. In addi­tion, the archi­tec­tural history of the manor houses, their ­indi­vi­dual fur­nis­hings and art his­to­rical clas­si­fi­ca­tion all required fur­ther rese­arch. The recon­struc­tion and 3D model­ling of our sci­en­tific work was also rese­ar­ched. Atthe end of the pro­ject, today’s estates and the buil­ding his­to­ries were docu­mented in pho­to­graphs, and we con­ti­nued to modify the 3D models. ● Two exem­plary rese­arch results are pre­sented here. Firstly, we share some reflec­tions on the history of the­buil­ding at Schlo­dien as part of its archi­tec­tural history, based on a survey of the ­manor house ruins car­ried out in April 2016. The focus was on the baroque core con­struc­tion, without the addi­tions from the 19th cen­tury. Secondly, we dis­cuss­com­pa­ra­tive examples ­con­cer­ning one of the most important pieces in the palace. The pain­ting of Fre­de­rick I has been lost since 1945, but the impor­t­ance of this work of art is evi­dent from his­to­rical pho­to­graphs. Crea­ting a 3D recon­struc­tion of suchan opu­lent work of art raised some com­pli­ca­tions that had to be over­come. ● Thirdly, we con­sider the advan­tages and dis­ad­van­tages of the digital tools used. On the one hand, this con­cerns the prac­ti­ca­lity and user-friend­li­ness of the soft­ware­so­lu­tions for rese­arch, and on the other, the com­pli­ca­tions resul­ting from inter­di­sci­pli­na­rity and influ­en­cing parts of the daily work­flow. Both are necessary sources of infor­ma­tion to deter­mine the value of this pro­ject and the deve­loped tools forthe future of art his­to­rical research.

Mieke Pfarr-Harfst is cur­r­ently working as Head of the­Re­se­arch Depart­ment “Digital Recon­struc­tions” at the Digital Design Unit, Tech­ni­sche Uni­ver­sität Darm­stadt. Her PhD, in which she deve­loped a docu­men­ta­tion system for digital recon­struc­tions, was awarded the Kurt Ruth Prize. Drawing on this workand her expe­ri­ence as a manager of inter­na­tional rese­arch pro­jects, she is now inves­ti­ga­ting the fun­da­men­tals and basic princi­ples of 3D models as an inno­va­tive metho­do­logy for rese­arch and dis­se­mi­na­tion in cul­tural heri­tage. She is co-founder andcon­venor of the Digital ­Recon­struc­tion Working Group of the Digital Huma­nities in German-spea­king Region (DHd) Asso­cia­tion. Mieke Pfarr-Harfst is regu­larly invited to give lec­tures at inter­na­tional insti­tutes and act as a reviewer for various­or­ga­ni­sa­tions and con­fe­rences. She was awarded two inter­na­tional grants at King’s Col­lege London and the Uni­ver­sity of Sara­jevo. Until 2017, she also held a lec­tureship in History of Archi­tec­ture at Mainz Uni­ver­sity of App­lied Sci­ences. Cur­r­ent­lyshe is tea­ching master’s level classes in Digital Huma­nities at the Johannes Guten­berg Uni­ver­sity, Mainz.

Krzy­sztof Koszewski, archi­tect, PhD in archi­tec­ture andurban plan­ning, affi­liated with Warsaw Uni­ver­sity of Tech­no­logy (WUT), Faculty of Archi­tec­ture, Chair of Archi­tec­tural Design. Rese­arch inte­rests include archi­tec­tural heri­tage, visual com­mu­ni­ca­tion in archi­tec­ture, metho­do­logy of the design­pro­cess and rese­arch by design pro­blems. He is involved in aca­demic rese­arch, tea­ching and admi­nis­tra­tion. He is co-creator and director of the Eng­lish-lan­guage master’s pro­gramme Archi­tec­ture for Society of Know­ledge at the Faculty of Archi­tec­tu­reat WUT, and is cur­r­ently involved in pre­pa­ring an Eng­lish-lan­guage PHD pro­gramme onthe same sub­ject. He is the co-author of a visual system for a map portal pre­sen­ting Polish listed archi­tec­tural and archaeo­lo­gical monu­ments deve­loped for National Heri­tage Board of Poland. He is a member of the Sci­en­tific Com­mittee of the­N­a­tional Heri­tage Board of Poland and Deputy Dean of Stu­dies at the Faculty of ­Archi­tec­ture, WUT (2008−2012 and 2016 onwards).

Mieke Pfarr-Harfst, Krzy­sztof Koszewski

Dohna-Schlo­dien: A vir­tual exhi­bi­tion – Digital Recon­struc­tion of the Manor House and Garden

The pro­ject “Dohna-Schlo­dien – a Vir­tual Exhi­bi­tion” was suc­cess­fully com­pleted at the Digital Design Unit, Tech­ni­sche Uni­ver­sität Darm­stadt in 2016. Bes­ides the Herder Insti­tute, two other pro­ject part­ners were involved: the Com­puter Aided Design­Unit at Warsaw Uni­ver­sity of Tech­no­logy and the Depart­ment of Art History at the Adam Mickie­wicz Uni­ver­sity in Poznan´. The pro­ject was funded by the German Federal Government Com­mis­sioner for Cul­ture and the Media (BKM). ● The inten­tion was tore­con­struct the manor house and park at Dohna-Schlo­dien, to under­stand and pre­serve the mate­rial and imma­te­rial cul­tural heri­tage around this des­troyed com­plex. The­re­fore, docu­men­ting oral history about the manor house and its park was also part ofthe pro­ject. Tog­e­ther with a con­tem­porary, Mrs Eli­sa­beth Dreisch­hoff, it was pos­sible to docu­ment life in the manor house and paint a magni­ficent pic­ture of its past in former East Prussia. Against this back­ground, and based on other hete­ro­ge­ne­ous­re­sources, the manor house of the 1930s was digi­tally recon­structed. ● Fur­ther­more, the Polish pro­ject part­ners have inves­ti­gated and recon­structed the main phases of park and garden (dated 1750, 1867, and 1940) and manor house with its indi­vi­du­al­buil­dings and vege­ta­tion. This led to a com­pre­hen­sive docu­men­ta­tion of the cur­rent tree stock and the transfer of the com­plete park into 3D. Col­la­bo­ra­tion bet­ween art his­to­rians and archi­tects working on digital 3D recon­struc­tion allowed us to draw­more general con­clu­sions about the poten­tial of rese­arch within the realm of know­ledge transfer from its tacit to explicit form. ● The collected resources, inclu­ding record­ings of inter­views with Mrs Dreisch­hoff and the digital 3D recon­struc­ted­mo­dels, were all docu­mented in the WissKi digital ­infra­st­ruc­ture pro­ject deve­loped at the Herder Insti­tute. ● The Dohna-Schlo­dien pro­ject makes a con­tri­bu­tion to basic ­rese­arch to deter­mine a sui­table docu­men­ta­tion system for ­digi­tal­re­con­struc­tions. The results will be inte­grated into fur­ther ­rese­arch in this field.

Jan Lut­teroth stu­died art history and clas­sical archaeo­lo­gyat the LMU Munich. He com­pleted a master’s on art crime and cul­tural heri­tage pro­tec­tion stu­dies in Italy and is cur­r­ently wri­ting his PhD on visua­li­sa­tion stra­te­gies of digital 3D recon­struc­tions under Pro­fessor Ste­phan Hoppe at the LMU Munich. Hehas been working as a sci­en­tific rese­ar­cher for the pro­ject “Vir­tual Recon­struc­tions in Trans­na­tional Rese­arch Envi­ron­ments”, pri­ma­ri­lyon the digital 3D recon­struc­tion of Fried­rich­stein manor and its sur­roun­ding buildings.

Arthur Sar­nitz is an archi­tect and general director of the­ar­chi­tec­tural and design com­pany Arthur Sar­nitz – Koenigs­berg (ASK), ­located in Kali­nin­grad, Russia. His com­pany con­sists of archi­tects and IT engi­neers. Since 2002 ASK has been engaged in pro­jects using mul­tipur­pose 3D model­ling soft­ware and the­fast ren­de­ring soft­ware LUMION to create archi­tec­tural visua­li­sa­tions. Arthur Sar­nitz is well-known for sourced-based digital 3D recon­struc­tions of over 1,000 his­to­rical buil­dings, mostly archi­tec­ture of the form­erly German city of Koenigsberg.Some of these are pre­sented on the web­site www​.alt​stadt​.ru. Bes­ides, ASK is known for crea­ting sug­ges­tions for the archi­tec­tural plan­ning of the Govern­mental His­to­rical and Cul­tural Com­plex on the former King’s Moun­tain with the King’s Castle – the­his­to­rical heart of the city of Kaliningrad/​Koenigsberg.

Jan Lut­teroth, Arthur Sarnitz

Fried­rich­stein: New Approa­ches in the Digital Recon­struc­tion of the Manor House

This pre­sen­ta­tion exem­pli­fies the work­flow struc­ture used for the digital 3D recon­struc­tion of the Fried­rich­stein manor. It out­lines the advan­tages of the under­lying semantic data­base for col­la­bo­ra­tive divi­sion of tasks and model­ling con­trol wit­hinan inter­na­tional rese­arch team. Docu­men­ting a com­pre­hen­sive work­flow is an essen­tial part of crea­ting a sci­en­tific digital recon­struc­tion model, as it allows for important data ana­lysis and use after the pro­ject. The Vir­tual Rese­arch Environment(VRE) intro­duced by the pro­ject guides the modeller through three key steps to create para­data (as demanded by the London Charter) that form the ­basis for con­sci­en­tious after-use of the 3D model. Firstly, the VRE allows the rese­ar­cher to integrate,compare and com­ment on all sources used in the model­ling pro­cess. During this viewing step, a logical buil­ding struc­ture needs to be deve­loped in order to pre­cisely refe­rence the sources rela­ting to parts of the buil­ding. This second step of divi­dingthe buil­ding into its essen­tial parts also deter­mines the level of detail that will evenly be used in the model. Finally, the VRE allows the modeller to ver­bally and visually ­describe model­ling decisions in com­bi­na­tion with the pre­viously gene­ra­teds­ources and buil­ding struc­ture, hence allowing any follow-up rese­ar­cher to easily retrace the infor­ma­tion lea­ding to the digital recon­struc­tion model. This web-based rese­arch envi­ron­ment has the bene­fits of “de-fina­li­sing” any visua­li­sa­tion ren­de­red­from the 3D model, dis­playing model­ling decisions and their cri­tique within a col­la­bo­ra­tive work struc­ture. Perhaps more import­antly, it enables fur­ther eva­lua­tion and inter­pre­ta­tion of the gene­rated 3D model and its para­data. ● Arthur Sar­nitz will­re­port on SketchUp 3D soft­ware for ana­ly­sing inco­ming data from VRE as 3D models, vector and raster drawings and maps. The pre­sented work­flow can work with many file for­mats, natively or by using ­plugins and is pre­cise enough for his­to­rical 3Dreconstruction ­requi­re­ments based on various sources. It is well suited to 3D model­ling and pho­to­rea­listic tex­tu­ring for later reuse in external soft­ware for archi­tec­tural visua­li­sa­tion, such as Lumion3D. The pre­sen­ta­tion will focus on Lumion3D tocom­bine all the avail­able models in one huge scene and set up real-time shaders for sky, ter­rain, grass, foliage, real loca­tion sun study and animation.

Daniel Dworak spe­cia­lises in 3D Web-based com­pu­ter­vi­sua­li­sa­tion, 3D data retrieval, sto­rage, com­pres­sion and trans­mis­sion impro­ve­ment. Since 2013 he has been working on his doc­toral thesis at the Faculty of Tech­nical Phy­sics, Infor­ma­tion Tech­no­logy and App­lied Mathe­ma­tics, Łódz´ Uni­ver­sity ofTech­no­logy. The sub­ject is the com­pres­sion of large com­puter gra­phics data sets for inter­ac­tive internet app­li­ca­tions. From 2013 to 2016 he worked at the Centre for Media and Inter­ac­ti­vity (ZMI) at JLU Gießen in the ­pro­ject “Digital 3DReconstructions in Vir­tual Rese­arch Envi­ron­ments”. He was respon­sible for pro­gramming, designing, impro­ving and ela­bo­ra­ting a 3D Web layer for dis­playing, retrie­ving and con­nec­ting a 3D inter­ac­tive envi­ron­ment for a Vir­tual Museum. He had the ideaof enco­ding, sto­ring, trans­mit­ting and deco­ding of 3D data from two-dimen­sional PNG based format, (3dPNG), which reduces files with 3D models by a factor of twelve. Dworak also pro­posed a modi­fied tech­nique for redu­cing model geo­metry and crea­tingnew faces of geometry.

Maria Piet­ruszka is asso­ciate pro­fessor at the Faculty ofTech­nical Phy­sics, Infor­ma­tion Tech­no­logy and App­lied Mathe­ma­tics, Łódz Uni­ver­sity of Tech­no­logy and at the Faculty of Eco­no­mics and Socio­logy, Uni­ver­sity of Łódz´. From 1994–1998 and 2009–2013 she has been Vice-Head of the Insti­tute of Infor­ma­tion­Tech­no­logy, where she has led the com­puter gra­phics and mul­ti­media rese­arch group since 1995. Her rese­arch focuses on two domains: com­puter gra­phics (visua­li­sa­tion of huge data struc­tures and real time gra­phic sys­tems), mul­ti­media and the Web. In1995, she ­initiated rese­arch into vir­tual rea­lity sys­tems at the Insti­tute of ­Infor­ma­tion Tech­no­logy. She is the author or co-author over 90 publi­ca­tions, member of the Edi­to­rial Board of the Journal of ­App­lied Com­puter Sci­ence (JACS), and­su­per­visor of 6 PhD dis­ser­ta­tions. She has con­tri­buted to many rese­arch pro­jects sup­ported by industry, the Ministry of National Edu­ca­tion, and the State Com­mittee for Sci­en­tific Rese­arch in Poland.

Daniel Dworak, Maria Pietruszka

Vir­tual Museum: Explo­ring the Past

In 2013, Łódz´ Uni­ver­sity of Tech­no­logy pre­pared basic requi­re­ments and assump­tions for vir­tual recon­struc­tions, because these are bur­dened with many restric­tions and unsolved pro­blems. WebGL tech­no­logy was chosen from a range of options (such asS­tage 3D, Away 3D, and X3D), as it is the most pro­mi­sing cross-plat­form, plugin-free, and suf­fi­ci­ently stable envi­ron­ment in deve­lo­p­ment which can be used to create a layer bet­ween the user and vir­tual world (Model-View-Con­troller). Steps have been­taken to solve or mini­mise exis­ting pro­blems with 3D Web tech­no­lo­gies. There is no single, strictly per­formed and con­sis­tent work­flow for visua­li­sing 3D con­tent and pro­posed file for­mats. During Daniel Dworak’s 6‑month super­vi­sion in Frank­furt, itwas con­firmed that there are many dif­fe­rent model­ling tech­ni­ques and soft­ware options that pro­duce inac­cu­rate data during the exporting/​importing pro­cess. We found that many par­ti­ci­pants have dif­fe­rent skills and use a variety of tools (such assoft­ware, file for­mats, or tex­tures). Based on this expe­ri­ence, we com­posed a short docu­ment exp­lai­ning how 3D models should be created, which is ready to be shared online. ● Anno­ta­tions of sources and 3D models were ano­ther important part of our­task. We deve­loped an inter­ac­tive, plat­form-inde­pen­dent and Internet-acces­sible envi­ron­ment for pre­pa­ring anno­ta­tions, con­nec­tions bet­ween them and actions, that is used by spe­cia­lists in dif­fe­rent fields (e.g. his­to­rians and modellers) to exch­an­ge­t­heir sug­ges­tions, doubts or sources of con­cern. ● The Vir­tual Museum appeared to be “the collec­tion” of many pro­posed, ­deve­loped and examined tech­ni­ques for 3D Web. Per­for­mance, inter­ac­ti­vity, and suf­fi­ci­ently rea­listic and authentic expe­ri­en­ce­were treated as key ele­ments throughout the work­flow. As a ­result of the ­author’s idea of coding and deco­ding 3dPNG files even up to ten times, 3D data can be down­loaded more quickly. The pro­cess of deco­ding this data has also been improved by­using general ­pro­ces­sing on gra­phics pro­ces­sing units. Tech­ni­ques from com­puter games like por­ta­ling, hot­spots, model split­ting and many more proved necessary. We also con­si­dered the ­user’s expe­ri­ence, pro­po­sing a user-friendly inter­face with­ca­re­fully selected ele­ments and mecha­nisms for explo­ring the 3D space.

Slide Räum­lich model­lieren – Per­spek­tiven für die Kunst- und Bild­geschichte
Inge Hin­ter­waldner is cur­r­ently pro­fessor of modern and con­tem­pora­ryart at the Insti­tute of Art and Visual History of the Hum­boldt Uni­ver­sity in Berlin. In 2009 she received her PhD in art ­history from the Uni­ver­sity of Basel with a thesis on inter­ac­tive com­puter simu­la­tions (The Sys­temic Image, German: Fink 2010,English: MIT Press 2017). Fel­low­ships and grants allowed her to pursue her rese­arch at MECS in Lüne­burg (2014), Duke Uni­ver­sity in Durham/​NC (2015), and MIT in Cambridge/​MA (2016). Her ­rese­arch focuses on inter­ac­ti­vity and tem­po­ra­lity in the arts,­computer-based art and archi­tec­ture, model theory, and the ­inter­de­pen­dence bet­ween the arts and the sci­ences since the 19th cen­tury. Cur­r­ently she is wri­ting a book on Fluid Form Con­cep­tions in kinetic art since the 1960s. She has co-edi­tedseveral volumes on a range of sub­jects, inclu­ding addres­sing medical and sci­en­tific visua­liz­a­tions as com­po­sites (2006), the rela­tion bet­ween image pro­duc­tion and model­ling prac­tices (2011, 2017), and dis­po­sable images (2016).

Inge Hin­ter­waldner

Zwi­schen Aspek­ti­vität, Affor­danz und big data. Über­le­gungen zur Modellthematik

Als ein Topos von Bil­dern gilt, dass sie etwas anderes und zugleich sich selbst zeigen. Analog dazu gelten Modelle, als Instanzen die etwas zeigen und auf eine Pro­duk­ti­vität bzw. ein Ein­greifen hin aus­ge­richtet sind. Laut der Archi­tekten Rivka Oxma­nund Larry Sass (2006) wenden sich manche Arte­fakte im Ent­wurfs­pro­zess der ‚visu­ellen‘ Inspek­tion zu, andere bieten daneben noch einen ‚hap­ti­schen‘ Zugang. Dies lässt den Umgang bzw. die Hand­lungs­ak­ti­vie­rung als eine brauch­bare Kate­gorie ­erscheinen.● Modell­hafte Arte­fakte sind auf bestimmte Weise kon­fi­gu­riert, um man­ches mit ihnen an ihnen testen zu lassen. Die reprä­sen­tie­rende Seite unter­scheidet sie von gewöhn­li­chen Instru­menten. Mit Modellen erreicht man in Ana­logie Phäno­mene, die sonstEin­griffen ent­rückt blieben, weil sie zu groß bzw. klein, langsam bzw. schnell, teuer oder gefähr­lich wären. Dies bedeutet, sie sind auf eine Hand­hab­bar­keit und das anthro­po­morphe Maß hin ori­en­tiert. Sie beför­dern und befeuern Inter­ak­tionen, ladenzum Pro­bieren ein. Zugleich sind sie ver­kör­perte Sicht­weisen, die erst mit der Aus­ein­an­der­set­zung mit ihnen preis­geben, was in ihnen steckt, näm­lich eine bestimmte ‚Reich­weite‘ in einem Set­ting, das sie zu explo­rieren erlauben. Dieser Bei­trag nähertsich den VR-basierten Gebäu­dere­kon­struk­tionen von außer­halb, mit all­ge­mei­neren Über­le­gungen zu bild­spe­zi­fi­scher Aspek­ti­vität (Teil­an­sich­tig­keit, nach Witt­gen­stein) und modell­spe­zi­fi­schen Affor­d­anzen (inter­es­sens­ge­lei­teten Hand­lungs­an­ge­boten, nach­Gibson), sowie deren mög­li­cher Ver­schrän­kungen. Als hin­füh­rende Bei­spiele dienen der­ge­stalt hybride Archi­tek­tur­dar­stel­lungen bzw. iko­ni­sche Modelle: Peter Eisen­mans „Houxe X“ (1975−1978), Mario Bottas „S. Carlo alle Quattro Fon­tane“ (1999), Pier­re­Huyghes „This is not a time for drea­ming“ (2004), Flo­rian Dom­bois’ „Zugabe“ (2014). Hier mischt sich eine räum­liche Kon­fi­gu­ra­tion mit der Logik der Axo­no­me­trie, des Auf­risses, der Auf­füh­rung und der tex­tu­rierten bill­boards. ● Eine bild­haf­te­Pro­jek­tion regelt als glo­bale Vor­schrift wie man die dar­ge­stellten Dinge gezeigt bekommt, ist auf den Visus aus­ge­richtet und auf der Seite der Reprä­sen­ta­tion situ­iert. Eine hand­lungs­be­zo­gene ‚Pro­jek­tion‘ hin­gegen ist auf die Seite der Ope­ra­ti­vität zuschlagen und ver­kör­pert sowohl eine ein­ge­baute Sicht­weise als auch Hand­lungs­tiefe bzw. ‑qua­lität.

Ste­phan Hoppe is Pro­fessor of Art History at the LMU Munich. He is theco-editor of several volumes dedi­cated to the Nort­hern Renais­sance, such as Stil als Bedeu­tung (Regens­burg 2008) and has published a text­book on baroque archi­tec­ture and town plan­ning. His main fields of inte­rest are archi­tec­ture and court cul­turein the Cen­tral Europe of the early modern period. He is cur­r­ently working on archi­tec­tural repre­sen­ta­tions like drawings, town plans, scale models and digital visua­li­sa­tions. A spe­cial focus is ­inter­ac­tion bet­ween archi­tec­ture and the pic­to­ri­al­arts. In 2009he cofounded the pri­vate eHu­ma­nities think tank and agency ­pau​sanio​.com and is an expert in Digital Art History. Since 2015 he ­directs the long term rese­arch pro­ject “Corpus der baro­cken Decken­ma­lerei in Deutsch­land” on monu­mental cei­ling­pain­ting of the early modern period at the Baye­ri­sche Aka­demie der Wis­sen­schaften (Munich), which is part of the Aca­de­mies Pro­gramme of the Union of the German Aca­de­mies of Sci­ences and Huma­nities. He is a board member of the rese­arch pro­jec­tRe­si­denz­städte im Alten Reich (1300−1800) at the Göt­tingen Aca­demy of Sci­ences and Huma­nities, the chief editor of the inter­di­sci­pli­nary quar­terly journal “Burgen und Schlösser” and a board member of “archi­tec­tura moderna (ARCHMOD). Archi­tec­tu­ra­lEx­ch­anges in Europe, 16th-17th cen­tu­ries” (Bre­pols).

Ste­phan Hoppe

Wie können wir die neuen 3D-Daten nutzen? Kunst­historische Poten­ziale des digi­talen Zugriffs auf die Raum­di­men­sion am Bei­spiel des Corpus der baro­cken Decken­ma­lerei in Deutschland

Obwohl der zwei- und drei­di­men­sio­nale Raum, ja sogar die Zeit als vierte Dimen­sion als Exis­ten­zweisen und Wahrnehmungs­kategorien bil­dender Kunst eine zen­trale Rolle spielen, ist es bis in die jüngste Ver­gan­gen­heit nur sehr unvoll­kommen gelungen,diese Kate­go­rien auch medial in die kunst­wis­sen­schaft­liche ­Dar­stel­lung und Argu­men­ta­tion zu inte­grieren. Erst die digi­tale ­Revo­lu­tion hat hier grund­sätz­lich ein neues mediales Gleich­ge­wicht geschaffen und neue Poten­tiale eröffnet. ● Ange­sichts der­zahl­rei­chen neuen und sich ständig weiter ent­wi­ckelnden tech­ni­schen Mög­lich­keiten in den Digi­talen Geis­tes­wis­sen­schaften ist es nun Auf­gabe der Kunst­ge­schichte, wis­sen­schaft­lich ertrag­reiche digi­tale Anwen­dungen zu erproben und viel­leicht sogar­ge­wisse epis­te­mo­lo­gi­sche Stan­dards der kunst­his­to­ri­schen ­Adres­sie­rung der dritten und vierten Dimen­sion zu eta­blieren. ● In dem Vor­trag sollen Erfah­rungen vor­ge­stellt werden, die im Rahmen eines For­schungs­pro­jektes der Union der deut­schen Aka­de­mienin Bezug auf die mediale Doku­men­ta­tion und Prä­sen­ta­tion drei­di­men­sio­naler Raum­kunst­werke gewonnen werden konnten. Die für die frühe Neu­zeit typi­sche Kunst der Decken­ma­lerei war fast ein euro­pa­weites Phä­nomen, dass erst durch neue kunst­theo­re­ti­sche­Schwer­punkte gegen Ende des 18. Jahr­hun­derts seine Prä­senz min­derte und in der öffent­li­chen Wahr­neh­mung zuneh­mend hinter die zwei­di­men­sio­nalen Bild­künste zurück­trat. Hinzu kam die grund­sätz­liche Schwie­rig­keit, solche ortge­bun­denen male­ri­schen­Raum­kunst­werke als Samm­lungs- und Aus­stel­lungs­be­stände in das neue Medium des bür­ger­li­chen Kunst­mu­seums zu trans­fe­rieren und inte­grieren. ● Das Corpus der baro­cken Decken­ma­lerei in Deutsch­land (CbDD) setzt im Rahmen seiner orga­ni­sa­to­ri­schen­Neu­aus­rich­tung als Lang­zeit­for­schungs­pro­jekt zur nicht­mu­sealen Kul­tur­über­lie­fe­rung im Feld der bil­denden Künste pro­gram­ma­tisch unter­schied­liche ­digi­tale Ver­fahren zur Adres­sie­rung der räum­li­chen Dimen­sion ein und treibt die metho­do­lo­gi­scheEva­lu­ie­rung der Ergeb­nisse voran (https://​www​.decken​ma​lerei​.badw​.de/​d​a​s​-​p​r​o​j​e​k​t​.html) ● Es wird sich in der Zukunft zeigen, ob hier digi­tale Präsenta­tionsformen, digi­tale gestützte Nar­ra­tive und ange­rei­cherte, ­hybride Sze­na­rien aus Bild- und­In­halts­ele­menten neue Wege in der Begeg­nung und zum Ver­ständnis mit einer der Leit­künste der frühen Neu­zeit eröffnen können. Die Ergeb­nisse dürften sich auf andere raum­be­zo­gene Künste über­tragen lassen.
Kai Kappel ist seit 2012 Pro­fessor für die Geschichte der Archi­tektur und des­Städ­te­baus an der Hum­boldt-Uni­ver­sität zu Berlin. Stu­dium der Kunst­ge­schichte, Klas­si­sche Archäo­logie und der Geschichte in Mainz, Hei­del­berg und Bonn; Dis­ser­ta­tion über S. Nicola in Bari und seine archi­tek­to­ni­sche Nach­folge (1996);­Habilitationsschrift: Memento 1945? Kir­chenbau aus Kriegs­ruinen und Trüm­mer­steinen in den West­zonen und in der Bun­des­re­pu­blik Deutsch­land (2008). Schwer­punkte in For­schung und Lehre: Archi­tek­tur­ge­schichte des Mit­tel­al­ters und des 19.–21.Jahrhunderts, vor allem in Deutsch­land, Ita­lien und Spa­nien. Im Ein­zelnen: Mit­tel­al­ter­re­zep­tion, Reform­bau­kunst und Tra­di­tio­na­lismus im 20. Jahr­hun­dert (ins­be­son­dere genos­sen­schaft­liche Struk­turen und Gegen­ent­würfe zu einer Welt des Eigentums);Geschichts­bilder und Erin­ne­rungs­kultur in der Archi­tektur des 20. und 21. Jh. (auch und gerade hin­sicht­lich der beiden Welt­kriege und der NS-Ver­bre­chen); die Wahr­neh­mung des Anderen/​Fremden in der Moderne (ins­be­son­dere Archi­tek­ten­reisen). 2016Mitbegründer des Netz­werks Kunst­ge­schichte und Digi­ta­lität, einem Zusam­men­schluss von Kunst­his­to­ri­ke­rInnen an der Freien Uni­ve­ristät, der Hum­boldt-Uni­ver­sität, der Tech­ni­schen Uni­ver­sität und der Hoch­schule für Technik und Wirt­schaft in Berlin.
Achim Hubel, geb. 1945, Stu­dium der Kunst­ge­schichte, Klas­si­sche Archäo­logie und­mit­tel­al­ter­li­chen Geschichte in Regens­burg und Mün­chen, Pro­mo­tion in Kunst­ge­schichte 1972, 1973–74 Muse­ums­vo­lontär in Köln und Mün­chen, 1974–1981 Diö­ze­san­kon­ser­vator in Regens­burg sowie Lehr­be­auf­tragter für Kunst­ge­schichte an der Uni­ver­si­tät­Re­gens­burg, seit 1981 Pro­fessor für Denk­mal­pflege am Institut für Archäo­logie, Denk­mal­kunde und Kunst­ge­schichte der Uni­ver­sität Bam­berg; 1996–1999 stell­ver­tre­tender Spre­cher, 1999–2002 Spre­cher des Gra­du­ier­ten­kol­legs „Kunst­wis­sen­schaft –Bau­for­schung – Denk­mal­pflege“ der Uni­ver­sität Bam­berg und der TU Berlin. Seit 2011 im Ruhe­stand. Mit­glied des Deut­schen Natio­nal­ko­mi­tees von ICOMOS; Mit­glied der Mit­tel­al­ter­kom­mis­sion der Berlin-Bran­den­bur­gi­schen Aka­demie der Wis­sen­schaften, indieser Funk­tion Pro­jekt­leiter des Corpus Vit­rearum Medii Aevi, Arbeits­stelle für Glas­ma­le­rei­for­schung in Potsdam. Zahl­reiche Ver­öf­fent­li­chungen zur Archi­tektur, Skulptur und Malerei des Mit­tel­al­ters, zur Gold­schmie­de­kunst, zur Denk­mal­kunde ­sowiezur Geschichte und Theorie der Denkmalpflege.

Kai Kappel, Achim Hubel

Zwi­schen Wis­sens­spei­cher und Visualisierungs­instrument – Fragen zur digi­talen Rekon­struk­tion aus der Archi­tektur- und Kunstgeschichte

Der auf­ein­ander auf­bau­ende Dop­pel­vor­trag pro­ble­ma­ti­siert die Über­trag­bar­keit ein­ge­führter Modi plani­me­tri­scher Dar­stel­lung in das Digi­tale. Wenn die digi­tale Prä­sen­ta­tion, auch und gerade jene in 3D, Visua­li­sie­rungs­in­stru­ment und Wis­sens­spei­cher­zugleich sein soll, bedarf es wei­terer gemein­samer Anstren­gungen. Es geht nicht nur darum, zeich­ne­ri­sche oder foto­gra­fi­sche Abbil­dungen von Archi­tektur, Skulptur oder Malerei medial zu über­tragen und zu grö­ßerer Anschau­lich­keit, räum­li­cher Illu­si­o­nund Reich­weite zu ver­helfen. Die Her­aus­for­de­rung besteht auch darin, die meist recht klein­tei­ligen Ergeb­nisse befund­ori­en­tierter Unter­su­chungen maß­stabs­ge­recht und bis ins Detail getreu für den künf­tigen wis­sen­schaft­li­chen Dis­kurs digital ver­füg­barzu machen. Dis­ku­tiert werden sollen die Her­aus­for­de­rungen und Grenzen dieses Ver­fah­rens. ● Wäh­rend der langen Lauf­zeit des For­schungs­pro­jekts zum Regens­burger Dom (1986−2016) haben Achim Hubel und Man­fred Schuller die ver­schie­densten Methoden zur­Do­ku­men­ta­tion des Bau­denk­mals erprobt, begin­nend mit dem Hand­aufmaß über die Foto­gramm­me­trie bis hin zu am PC erar­bei­teten drei­di­men­sio­nalen Dar­stel­lungen. Auf der Basis dieser Infor­ma­tionen lassen sich Rekon­struk­tionen von Zwi­schen­zu­ständen bzw.nicht aus­ge­führte Pla­nungen didak­tisch ­visua­li­sieren, vor­aus­ge­setzt sie beruhen nicht auf Spe­ku­la­tionen, son­dern auf ein­deu­tigen Befunden. ● Größte Pro­bleme bereitet es aller­dings, wenn man ver­sucht, auf den 3D-Modellen von ­Archi­tektur und Skulp­turdie auf der Basis restau­ra­to­ri­scher ­Befund­un­ter­su­chungen gewonnen Kennt­nisse zu den frü­heren far­bigen Fas­sungen so adäquat zu rekon­stru­ieren, dass ein nach­voll­zieh­barer Ein­druck vom ursprüng­li­chen Aus­sehen zu errei­chen ist. Selbst wenn man sich beider Tex­tu­rie­rung der Ober­flächen noch so sehr bemüht, kann der Gesamt­ein­druck wenig befrie­digen, zumal wenn man die ästhe­ti­sche Bedeu­tung der Farb­fas­sungen für Bau­werk und Bild­werk wür­digen will. So ­haben Achim Hubel und Chris­toph Schlieder(Lehrstuhl für Ange­wandte Infor­matik in den Geis­tes­wis­sen­schaften an der Univer­sität Bam­berg) einen neuen, eigent­lich sehr kon­ser­va­tiven Weg beschritten: Mit einem Team von zehn Doktorand(inn)en wurde statt mit drei­di­men­sio­nalen Scans bewusst mitz­wei­di­men­sio­nalen Vor­lagen gear­beitet, auf der Basis foto­gra­fi­scher Auf­nahmen. Die Erfah­rungen und Ergeb­nisse werden in Aus­wahl vor­ge­stellt und sollen zur Dis­kus­sion anregen.

Bernd Fröh­lich is a full pro­fessor of Com­puter Sci­ence atBau­haus-Uni­ver­sität Weimar. He is chair of the Vir­tual Rea­lity and ­Visua­liz­a­tion Rese­arch Group. His work focuses on basic and ­app­lied rese­arch into multi-user vir­tual rea­lity and 3D user inter­faces, visua­li­sa­tion and ren­de­ring algo­rithms for­very large data­sets, and infor­ma­tion visua­li­sa­tion. After com­ple­ting his PhD in com­puter sci­ence at the Tech­nical Uni­ver­sity of Braun­schweig, he worked at the German National Rese­arch Center for Infor­ma­tion Tech­no­logy (GMD) and was a rese­ar­chas­so­ciate with the com­puter sci­ence depart­ment at Stan­ford Uni­ver­sity. He is a cofounder and member of the stee­ring com­mittee of the IEEE Sym­po­sium on 3D User Inter­faces, chair of the stee­ring com­mittee of the IEEE Vir­tual Rea­lity con­fe­rence and­re­ceived the 2008 Vir­tual Rea­lity Tech­nical Achie­ve­ment Award. Fro­eh­lich serves as an ­asso­ciate editor of the journal Fron­tiers in Vir­tual Environments.

Bern­hard Fröhlich

Gemein­same Explo­ra­tion digi­taler Rekon­struk­tionen aus der Kunst- und Kultur­geschichte in kol­la­bo­ra­tiver vir­tu­eller Realität

Die Digi­ta­li­sie­rung his­to­ri­scher Orte, Objekte, Bilder und Texte bietet neue Mög­lich­keiten für deren wis­sen­schaft­liche Ana­lyse und Ver­mitt­lung. Die Auf­nahmen sind quasi an jedem Ort der Welt ver­fügbar, aller­dings in sehr unter­schied­li­chen digi­ta­len­For­maten mit von­ein­ander iso­lierten Ansichten. Die Dar­stel­lung räum­lich-zeit­li­cher Zusam­men­hänge zwi­schen den digi­ta­li­sierten Arte­fakten ist mit den vor­herr­schenden Desktop-ori­en­tierten Dar­stel­lungs­me­thoden nur ein­ge­schränkt mög­lich. Refe­renz­maß­ekönnen nur indi­rekt ver­mit­telt werden. Zudem unter­stützen die meisten Benut­zungs­schnitt­stellen nur die Inter­ak­tion mit ein­zelnen Per­sonen und erschweren dadurch den gegen­sei­tigen Aus­tausch über die dar­ge­stellten Objekte, Kon­zepte und Pro­zesse. DieGleich­zei­tig­keit ver­schie­dener Per­spek­tiven auf die glei­chen Infor­ma­tionen ist genauso wenig vor­ge­sehen wie Mög­lich­keiten zur Ver­mitt­lung dazwi­schen. ● Die vir­tu­elle Rea­lität bietet neue Chancen für die gemein­same Daten­ana­lyse und für die­ge­gen­sei­tige Ver­mitt­lung von Sicht­weisen, Argu­men­ta­ti­ons­ketten, Fund­stü­cken und deren Pro­ve­nienz. Im Gegen­satz zu ein­zelnen 2D Bil­dern reprä­sen­tieren 3D-Modelle ver­schie­dene Per­spek­tiven implizit und ohne Red­un­danz. Vor allem aber können die ­Datenim jeweils rele­vanten räum­lich-zeit­li­chen Kon­text und für meh­rere Per­sonen per­spek­ti­visch richtig in einem gemeinsam genutzten vir­tu­ellen Raum dar­ge­stellt werden. Die Wahr­neh­mung der Modelle in dieser Umge­bung, in Rela­tion zum eigenen Körper und der­so­ziale Aus­tausch dar­über, können die Glaub­wür­dig­keit wis­sen­schaft­li­cher Hypo­thesen unter­mauern, aber auch Unstim­mig­keiten ver­deut­li­chen. Zusatz­in­for­ma­tionen in Wort und Bild, z.B. Anno­ta­tionen, können direkt in die Modelle ein­ge­bettet werden. ●Pro­to­typen zur kol­la­bo­ra­tiven 3D Daten­ana­lyse wurden im VR-Labor der Bau­haus-Uni­ver­sität Weimar ent­wi­ckelt und im Kon­text von EU-Pro­jekten eva­lu­iert. Unsere Sys­teme unter­stützen Gruppen lokaler Anwender, aber durch 3D-Tele­prä­senz, diedrei­di­men­sio­nale Auf­nahme und Über­tra­gung von Per­sonen, unter­stützen wir auch die Zusam­men­ar­beit über geo­gra­phi­sche Grenzen hinweg. Als Anwen­dungs­fälle ­dienen uns 3D Scans his­to­ri­scher Gebäude und prä­his­to­ri­scher Fels­gra­vuren. Die­Grund­la­gen­tech­no­lo­gien unserer Sys­teme werden mit­tel­fristig für viele Anwen­dungen ver­fügbar, doch für eine effek­tive Benutz­bar­keit gilt es noch viele tech­ni­sche und kon­zep­tio­nelle Her­aus­for­de­rungen zu bewäl­tigen. Dazu gehören, unter anderem,leistungsfähige Ver­fahren zur Daten­ver­wal­tung und Bild­be­rech­nung für umfang­reiche 3D- und 4D-Scans, effek­tive Benut­zungs­schnitt­stellen für Koope­ra­tion sowie die naht­lose Inte­gra­tion mit eta­blierten For­schungs­me­thoden. In meinem Vor­trag werde ichun­sere bis­he­rigen Ent­wick­lungen und aktu­elle For­schung in diesem Bereich vorstellen.

Ina Blümel is archi­tect and acting pro­fessor for Open Sci­ence, ­Digi­tal­Li­bra­ries and Rese­arch Infra­st­ruc­tures at Han­nover Uni­ver­sity of App­lied Sci­ences and Arts. She con­ducts rese­arch at the Open Sci­ence Lab of the German National Library of Sci­ence and Tech­no­logy (TIB), co-faci­li­ta­ting col­la­bo­ra­tive open book­pro­jects and the Euro­pean com­mu­nity on Linked Open Data for rese­arch infor­ma­tion. At TIB she has been working on several digital library pro­jects to enable auto­matic indexing and pro­vi­sion of rese­arch items like 3D models in archi­tec­tural domains.A cur­rent pro­ject on open access images inte­grates this rese­arch field with the ­infra­st­ruc­ture of Wiki­media Com­mons and Wiki­data. Ina initiated the Open Sci­ence in Higher Edu­ca­tion initia­tive at Leibniz ­Rese­arch Alli­ance Sci­ence 2.0 and is men­torin the Wiki­media DE /​Open Sci­ence Fel­lows Programme.

Ina Blümel

3D For­schungs­daten

Ver­füg­bar­ma­chung und Archi­vie­rung digi­taler For­schungs­daten bekommen einen immer grö­ßeren Stel­len­wert in For­schungs­pro­jekten quer durch alle Wis­sen­schafts­dis­zi­plinen. Die Daten, z.B. deskrip­tive Modelle zur Ver­an­schau­li­chung von kom­plexen drei- und­mehr­di­men­sio­nalen Zusam­men­hängen, sind die Grund­lage wis­sen­schaft­li­cher Publi­ka­tionen, und zuneh­mend auch beglei­tendes Mate­rial. Analog zum Mantra der Open Access Bewe­gung wird die freie Ver­füg­bar­keit für For­schungs­daten gefor­dert, ­deren Erstel­lungaus öffent­li­chen Mit­teln finan­ziert wurde. Auch die For­scher selbst erkennen den Wert des Data Sharing im ­Sinne von Open Sci­ence, ange­fangen von Zeit­er­sparnis durch Wie­der­ver­wen­dung, Gewin­nung neuer Erkennt­nisse und Repro­du­zier­bar­keit der­Er­geb­nisse, bis hin zu Repu­ta­ti­ons­stei­ge­rung durch zitier­bare For­schungs­daten. ● Doch obschon Open Data Repo­si­to­ries vor­handen sind und dis­zi­plin­über­grei­fend erprobte Kon­zepte zur freien Lizen­zie­rung und per­sis­tenten Iden­ti­fi­ka­tion von­For­schungs­daten vor­liegen, so stellen bei 3D-Modellen ins­be­son­dere die Berei­ni­gung der Daten, Doku­men­ta­ti­ons­auf­wand, Zugangs­re­ge­lungen, pro­prie­täre For­mate und lang­fris­tige Erhal­tung von Infor­ma­tionen eine Her­aus­for­de­rung dar. Hinzu kommt, dass ein­For­scher weniger geneigt ist, sein Modell frei zur Ver­fügung zu stellen je höher er dessen Wert ein­schätzt, zumin­dest bevor er nicht selbst Profit aus den Daten gezogen hat, und sei es nur durch nar­ra­tive Ver­ede­lung in Form einer Publi­ka­tion. Auchdie ewigen Themen Stan­dards, Inter­ope­ra­bi­lität und Auf­wand zur Ein­hal­tung dis­zi­plin­ab­hän­giger Beschrei­bungs-Kon­ven­tionen, sofern über­haupt ver­fügbar, spielen eine Rolle ob 3D-Modelle geteilt und nach­ge­nutzt werden oder nicht. ● Par­allel ist jedoch zube­ob­achten, dass – auch fernab rein pla­ne­ri­scher Tätig­keiten – kol­la­bo­ra­tive und inter­dis­zi­pli­näre Arbeits­weisen mit 3D-Modellen Akzep­tanz in der Wis­sen­schafts­kultur finden. Obgleich das Para­digma von par­tiell geschlos­senen vir­tu­el­len­For­schungs­um­ge­bungen nach wie vor vor­herr­schend ist, sind auch Ten­denzen in Rich­tung Offen­heit erkennbar. Gleich­zeitig ent­wi­ckeln sich unzäh­lige Por­tale und einige zen­trale Hubs für frei ver­füg­bare 3D-Inhalte unter­schied­lichster For­mate, ­jedoch sind­diese man­gels Kom­ple­xität nur sehr ein­ge­schränkt wis­sen­schaft­lich nutzbar, von Kon­zepten für die lang­fris­tige Nutz­bar­keit der Daten ganz zu schweigen. ● Dieser Bei­trag gibt eine Über­sicht über Kon­zepte und Her­aus­for­de­rungen im Span­nungs­feld von3D-Modellen und Open Sci­ence aus Sicht der Wis­sen­schaftler und erläu­tert Erkennt­nisse, die im Rahmen von Pro­jekt­ak­ti­vi­täten der Tech­ni­schen Infor­ma­ti­ons­bi­blio­thek ­Han­nover gewonnen wurden. Als Ein­lei­tung der nach­fol­genden Podi­ums­dis­kus­si­ons­run­de­soll hier ein denk­an­re­gender Impuls gesetzt werden zum Thema „Open Data und 3D-Rekon­struk­tion – wie passt das zusammen?“

Final Dis­cus­sion


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